Migration Letters https://www.migrationletters.com/ml <p><strong>Migration Letters</strong> is an international leading scholarly <strong>open access</strong> journal for researchers, students, scholars who investigate human migration as well as practitioners and quick dissemination of research in the field through its letter type format enabling concise sharing of short accounts of research, debates, case studies, book reviews and viewpoints in this multidisciplinary field of social sciences. Migration Letters is the first-ever letter-type journal in migration studies launched in 2004. It is following a strict double-blind peer review policy for research articles. <strong>Migration Letters</strong> is published bimonthly in January, March, May, July, September, and November.</p> <p>ISSN: 1741-8984 | e-ISSN: 1741-8992 | The abbreviated title of Migration Letters journal is: Migrat. Lett. | <strong>Migration Letters</strong> is abstracted and indexed widely including by SCOPUS and Web of Science.</p> Transnational Press London en-US Migration Letters 1741-8984 <p>All rights reserved. Copyright © 2013-2022 Transnational Press London</p> Book Review: Loftsdóttir, K (2022) We Are All Africans Here: Race, Mobilities, and West Africans in Europe https://www.migrationletters.com/ml/article/view/2840 <p>Loftsdóttir, K (2022) We Are All Africans Here: Race, Mobilities, and West Africans in Europe. New York: Berghahn Books, 192 pages, ISBN: 9781800733275</p> <p>Reviewed by Olgu Karan, <a href="#_ftn1" name="_ftnref1"></a>Department of Sociology, Başkent University,Turkey. E-mail: <a href="mailto:olgukaran@gmail.com">olgukaran@gmail.com</a></p> Olgu Karan Copyright (c) 2022 Migration Letters 2022-11-12 2022-11-12 19 6 983 – 984 983 – 984 10.33182/ml.v19i6.2840 The ‘inconfinables’ or the creation of ‘superfluous lives’ in times of crisis https://www.migrationletters.com/ml/article/view/2225 <p><em>Gender, class, ethnicity and generation played a determining role in exposure to the COVID-19 virus and in access to care. This translated into differences in communicability, morbidity and mortality. Migrants and ethnic minorities have been over-represented among serious cases, just as they are often also disproportionately affected during natural disasters and crises. We focus on a segment of vulnerable population defined by the French term ‘inconfinables’. Related to the term ‘confinement’, used in France to mean lockdown, the ‘inconfinables’ are those individuals that, due to personal, socio-economic and administrative factors, may not respect the governmental measures proposed to contain the spread of the pandemic. The article presents an comparative analysis of different approaches implemented at the domestic level (in France and Italy) to gain original insights into the practice of lockdown regimes. These insights are used to explore the nexus between ethnic social inequalities, governmental capacity to ensure effective protection of the whole population and human rights. </em></p> Laura Odasso Elisa Fornalé Copyright (c) 2022 Migration Letters 2022-11-12 2022-11-12 19 6 739 749 10.33182/ml.v19i6.2225 Gender and the career trajectories of highly skilled Syrian refugees in Switzerland https://www.migrationletters.com/ml/article/view/2117 <p><em>This article looks at the role of gender relations and norms in the (re)making of career trajectories of highly skilled Syrian refugees in Switzerland. We explore how refugees encounter gender regimes while making sense of their present work situation vis-à-vis their career plans. We draw upon a qualitative study conducted with 27 highly skilled Syrian refugees in Switzerland. How do refugees encounter different gender regimes in Switzerland? What is the significance of gender in their transition to a new labour market? How do they re-negotiate gender meanings and roles following the displacement? Our findings show that refugees (re)make sense of gender norms, roles and meanings across space and time vis-à-vis their career trajectories. The gender regimes these people refer to are highly diversified and shape people’s negotiation of family roles and identities in complex and at times ambivalent ways, also along multiple lines of belonging.</em></p> Flavia Cangià Eric Davoine Sima Tashtish Copyright (c) 2022 Migration Letters 2022-11-12 2022-11-12 19 6 751 – 764 751 – 764 10.33182/ml.v19i6.2117 Towards a post-autonomy of migration: (Young) refugees between belligerent and peaceful agency https://www.migrationletters.com/ml/article/view/2214 <p><em>Contemporary research on migration and border regimes emphasizes that migration produces effects beyond border control, as migrants act (partially) autonomously as individual or collective agents. On the discursive level, many representations tend to foster fantasies of refugees as autonomous political fighters, which overlooks their frequently peaceful aims and ignores non-violent (micro-)politics. Based on an example from Laura Otto’s fieldwork with young migrants in Malta, we claim that it is important for critical migration theory not to subsume diverse forms of agency and concrete actions of migrants too easily under the umbrella of the autonomy of migration, as autonomy is a highly ambivalent concept – not an end in itself. We propose to distinguish clearly between belligerent and peaceful forms of political agency. Beyond an understanding of autonomy as combative by principle, a post-autonomous viewpoint takes constructive interdependencies among migrants and non-migrant EU-populations into consideration, too.</em></p> Laura Otto Felix Hoffmann Copyright (c) 2022 Migration Letters 2022-11-12 2022-11-12 19 6 765 – 779 765 – 779 10.33182/ml.v19i6.2214 Can collaborative knowledge production decolonize epistemology? https://www.migrationletters.com/ml/article/view/2360 <p><em>A critical engagement with representation, positionality, and power inequalities has become increasingly common in research and publication projects in the field of forced migration studies. Indeed, the field has drawn on decolonial frameworks to move towards more inclusive perspectives. Nevertheless, the challenge in decolonizing knowledge production is to consider the rich spectrum of knowledges and knowledge production, while remaining aware of complexities and tensions, to avoid further marginalizing already-marginalized actors. This article stimulates a discussion that critically reflects on the structures and power relations in which collaboration processes form. I draw on forms of collaboration applied in my research, primarily co-authorships with refugee research partners, to reflect on methodological challenges and questions of legitimacy, from positions of hegemonic academic knowledge production. An epistemic decolonization through collaborative knowledge production can only occur if researchers practise emancipatory and ethical scholarship that revalues marginalized actors’ perspectives and agendas, while also actively decentring the western hegemonic academy.</em></p> Sarah Nimführ Copyright (c) 2022 Migration Letters 2022-11-12 2022-11-12 19 6 781 – 789 781 – 789 10.33182/ml.v19i6.2360 Mobility as survival and freedom: Pandemic, Immobility and its implications for women and queer migrants https://www.migrationletters.com/ml/article/view/2009 <p><em>This paper intends to move beyond the common knowledge of how pandemic restricts mobility at large and provokes us to think about those for whom mobility restriction was a way of life much before the coronavirus arrived. Looking at shadow pandemic of gender-based mobility restrictions of women and non-male actors in conservative societies in South Asia, in this paper I argue that social deconstruction of “immobility” is embedded in the process of gendering the pandemic. Drawing from interviews conducted on the Indian immigrants in Germany over a year during and after the global lock down, this paper explores how covid-induced immobility mimics an already established framework of coerced immobility based on gender that acts as a motivation of migration for women and non-male actors at some level. Referring to Ayelet Shachar’s idea of shifting borders, I locate the moral borders at home as a crucial competitor of physical borders of the barbed wire, that often provokes women and non-male actors to take the leap of faith for survival and better livelihood.</em></p> Amrita Datta Copyright (c) 2022 Migration Letters 2022-11-12 2022-11-12 19 6 791 – 799 791 – 799 10.33182/ml.v19i6.2009 Out-migration from the Hills of Garhwal Himalaya: a Case Study https://www.migrationletters.com/ml/article/view/2211 <p><em>Throughout history, out-migration has significantly impacted the Garhwal Himalaya. This is a common phenomenon, and people have used it to diversify their risk and livelihood options. This paper evaluates the extent of out-migration in the Garhwal Himalaya and examines the different types, patterns, reasons, and implications of out-migration. The study was conducted by gathering data from the 12 villages of the Garhwal Himalaya. A total of 560 households were surveyed from the villages, covering 100% sample from each village. The authors constructed a structured questionnaire and asked the heads of each surveyed household about the types of migration they practice, the locations of migration, the reasons for migration, and the consequences of such migration. In addition, the authors asked about migrants' age, sex, education, income, and occupation. The study reveals that out-migration in the Garhwal Himalaya has become a major problem since it has led to many socio-economic problems in the region. And if it is not addressed at its earliest, a large number of villages will become depopulated. Additionally, this study suggests some policy measures to curb out-migration from the Garhwal Himalaya. </em></p> Saurav Kumar Copyright (c) 2022 Migration Letters 2022-11-12 2022-11-12 19 6 801 – 818 801 – 818 10.33182/ml.v19i6.2211 Ukrainian asylum seekers in Latvia: the circumstances of destination choice https://www.migrationletters.com/ml/article/view/2364 <p><em>Russian invasion in Ukraine in 2022 has created the biggest refugee crisis in Europe since WWII. Close to 7 million people have left the country as of August 2022 and figures keep growing. Latvia has accommodated a mere 36 thousand of them, but it exemplifies other smaller countries in the refugee flows. Patterns and factors of asylee destination decisions for less popular destinations have not been explored making one wonder what makes refugees deviate from the mainstream migration flows.</em></p> <p><em>We explore why and how Ukrainian war-displaced people have chosen Latvia using the narratives of Ukrainian displaced people who arrived in Latvia in early stages of the conflict. Drawing on in-depth qualitative interviews with refugees in Latvia, we find that networks are the primary determinant of the choice to flee to Latvia. The closeness of kinship is not as important as the fact of having the contact as such, nor does it determine the level of support. Close or distant relatives and friends are the first instance to turn to for war-displaced civilians, while financial factors do not appear to be decisive. In the situation of acute displacement, the first asylee strategy is to seek support in kinship and other networks.</em></p> Zane Varpina Kata Fredheim Copyright (c) 2022 Migration Letters 2022-11-12 2022-11-12 19 6 819 – 831 819 – 831 10.33182/ml.v19i6.2364 Proximity-Sensitive Relative Deprivation and International Migration Intentions https://www.migrationletters.com/ml/article/view/2425 <p><em>This paper aims to re-examine the relation between relative deprivation (RD) and international migration intentions when people demonstrate asymmetric proximity preferences towards higher-income reference individuals on the income ladder. We consider three cases: the conventional linear case, in which all comparisons with higher-income individuals have equal weight; the rising proximity preferences, in which individuals assign increasing weights to reference groups as they get closer on the income ladder; and when individuals are more sensitive to income changes of the far wealthier. We use Gallup’s individual-level survey data on 129 countries, between 2009 and 2017. We find that the international migration-RD relation depends on the proximity preferences along the income distribution and across risk-tolerance levels. The common wisdom that people migrate to enhance their relative positions is found robust only among the poorest and the more risk-tolerant populations, under different proximity preferences assumptions. This paper provides deeper understanding on how policies directed to reducing income inequality and poverty may impact migration outcomes in sending countries when the target population exhibits proximity-sensitive RD.</em></p> Amany A. El El Anshasy Mrittika Shamsuddin Marina-Selini Katsaiti Copyright (c) 2022 Migration Letters 2022-11-12 2022-11-12 19 6 833 – 841 833 – 841 10.33182/ml.v19i6.2425 Emotional Reflexivity in Social Work with Refugees: Implications from Turkey https://www.migrationletters.com/ml/article/view/1425 <p><em>Reflexivity refers to the process of taking the role of others and evaluating oneself from the other’s perspective in the general sense (Rosenberg, 1990). Using reflexivity while conducting research and working with complex issues such as trauma, assault, and abuse assist researchers and employees to be self-aware and reflective of the meaning-making process. This research aims to examine the role of emotional reflexivity for staff working with refugees. Therefore, emotional experiences resulting from engaging with issues of trauma and cultural diversity are analyzed in the scope of emotional reflexivity. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 12 participants working at different NGOs and of different ages. There are mainly two themes that emerged from the data analysis: praxis and reflexivity. Theme called praxis has two codes as advocacy and reflective action. Theme referred to as reflexivity has three codes: psychological awareness, social distance, wider social and political context, and coping strategies. This study reveals the emotional experiences and the needs of the NGO workers engaging issues with trauma and diversity. </em></p> Dilara Özel Copyright (c) 2022 Migration Letters 2022-11-12 2022-11-12 19 6 843 – 854 843 – 854 10.33182/ml.v19i6.1425 Attitudes towards no-European Immigrants in EU: The Role of Legacy Media and New Media https://www.migrationletters.com/ml/article/view/2111 <p><em>Many studies in different scientific fields offer controversial results on the media’s role to influence attitudes towards immigration. In the present paper, the attitude that European public opinion has towards no-European immigration is analysed through data from Eurobarometer in the 3 waves starting in 2017 until the latest updated in 2019 with the aim to estimate the relationship with new and legacy media use. Specifying repeated measures multilevel models, we find that the use of legacy media (TV, press, and radio) and new media (website and online social networks) affects the relationship between citizens’ opinion in EU and attitudes towards no-European immigrants, when the European migration crisis reaches high levels and the migration issue becomes heated for public opinion. High exposure to news communication produces different relationships looking at legacy and new media. If radio, TV, newspapers are used frequently to obtain political information, the attitudes towards external migration are hostile but also in the case of new media. Legacy media manage to soften the negative attitude towards no-European immigrants, at least for low levels of immigration. On the contrary, new media are able to bring European citizens into line with even negative or hostile attitudes.</em></p> Venera Tomaselli Rossana Sampugnaro Copyright (c) 2022 Migration Letters 2022-11-12 2022-11-12 19 6 855 – 868 855 – 868 10.33182/ml.v19i5.2111 Educated Syrian Working Women: Evaluation of the Acculturation Process https://www.migrationletters.com/ml/article/view/2599 <p><em>Turkey is the country with the largest Syrian refugee population in the world. This research examines how Syrian-educated refugee women perceive their acculturation experiences and their life experiences pre- and post-migration. Women (ten participants) who were educated in their country and had working experience participated in the study. The study in the qualitative research method is in the phenomenological design. Research data were collected using a semi-structured interview form developed by the researcher.</em></p> <p><em>The experiences of the participants have evaluated seven titles. Migration and post-migration; interaction in the post-migration process; relations in the post-migration process; social identity, intersectionality, and discrimination; professional life; life satisfaction and adaptation; expectations. As a result of the research, it has been determined that participants' lives pre- and post-migration changed, and women's education facilitated their language learning, acculturation, and adaptation.</em></p> Betül Dilara Şeker Copyright (c) 2022 Migration Letters 2022-11-12 2022-11-12 19 6 869 – 879 869 – 879 10.33182/ml.v19i6.2599 Economic immigration in the secondary segment in Poland taking the example of employees from Ukraine https://www.migrationletters.com/ml/article/view/1404 <p><em>The article aimed to analyse the labour market in Poland in relation to the employment of foreigners, especially immigrants from Ukraine, showing not only the dimensions of economic immigration over the period 2009-2019 but also the impact on the Polish economy. An analysis of the changes in the situation of foreign workers in the labour market over the last decade shows that despite an increase in employment among foreigners, they are not competition for native employees, which means that they “do not take jobs”, on the contrary – they fill the gap where there is a shortage of native employees, because, for example, they went abroad or do not want to take niche, low-paid jobs.</em></p> Marzena Sylwia Kruk Copyright (c) 2022 Migration Letters 2022-11-12 2022-11-12 19 6 881 – 895 881 – 895 10.33182/ml.v19i6.1404 Segregation, education, and inclusion of European Roma: A demographic analysis https://www.migrationletters.com/ml/article/view/1555 <p><em>The isolation of Romani people is rooted both in discrimination by non-Roma and in Romani informal institutions known as romaniya. Residential desegregation is a sectoral objective in the European Union public policies for Roma. The current study is based on the EU-MIDIS II study of 20,375 Romani adults from south-western and south-eastern Europe. A logistic regression with fractional polynomial transformation is used to model hypothesised relationships between education and residential segregation on the one hand and economic outcomes and discrimination on the other among segregated and non-segregated Roma. The analysis demonstrates that among Roma, more years of education were related to a higher likelihood of adult employment, living above the at-risk-of-poverty threshold, and the ability of households to make ends meet irrespective of the ethnic composition of the neighbourhood. In densely populated areas residential segregation was not significantly associated with the economic performance of the Roma. Education and residential segregation were not significant predictors of self-perceived discrimination.</em></p> Krzysztof Czaderny Copyright (c) 2022 Migration Letters 2022-11-15 2022-11-15 19 6 897 909 10.33182/ml.v19i6.1555 Examining the cyclical pattern of remittance flow, migrants stock, and income of 31 pairs of countries with India https://www.migrationletters.com/ml/article/view/1655 <p><em>This study has examined the cyclical pattern of remittances, migrants’ stock, and income of 31 pairs of countries with India for the period from 2010 to 2016. The main motivation was to examine whether immigration and emigration policies play an influential role to improve welfare between the host and origin country or not in terms of bilateral remittance flows. As our bilateral remittance and migrant stock data follow a binomial distribution, so we have applied both ordered logit and ordered probit regression models to examine the smoothing hypothesis which was a new addition to the literature. Our result shows that remittance and migrant stocks show a counter-cyclical movement with an income of country origin while it shows a pro-cyclical movement with an income of country destination. The study concludes that financial constraint is a major issue for immigrants’ movement that leads to low remittances flows and should be alleviated. Further, immigration and emigration policies should be determined by looking at the unemployment rate, the magnitude of migration, and the population size of both host and origin countries.</em></p> Hemachandra Padhan Deepak Kumar Behera Santosh Kumar Sahu Umakant Dash Copyright (c) 2022 Migration Letters 2022-11-12 2022-11-12 19 6 911 – 931 911 – 931 10.33182/ml.v19i6.1655 Non-salary employment conditions as a factor shaping migration decision-making: an example of workers from Ukraine in Poland https://www.migrationletters.com/ml/article/view/2162 <p><em>The paper studies non-salary employment conditions as a factor affecting labour migrants’ choice the host country and a particular employer. It argues that the extant literature, focusing mainly on wage levels offered by employers, is insufficient to understand the decisions taken by migrants, especially if there is persistently low unemployment and high demand for foreign labour in a given market. A secondary analysis of the results of two empirical studies conducted in Poland in the period 2017–2019, focusing on various categories of Ukrainian workers, was used to shed a light on the role of non-salary employment conditions in the migration decision-making process. At that time, Poland encountered both low levels of unemployment and persistent demand for foreign workers, as well as liberal immigration regulations for labour immigration from selected Eastern European countries. Therefore, it met the conditions of the so-called migration laboratory.</em></p> Maciej Duszczyk Kamil Matuszczyk Copyright (c) 2022 Migration Letters 2022-11-12 2022-11-12 19 6 933 – 942 933 – 942 10.33182/ml.v19i5.2162 Social Ties and Stricter Immigration Enforcement Influencing Mexican Migrants’ Remitting Behavior https://www.migrationletters.com/ml/article/view/1800 <p><em>This study examines whether Mexican migrants’ remitting behavior during their last U.S. trip changed as policies restricting unauthorized immigration in the U.S. tightened. Using data from the Mexican Migration Project (MMP 150), this study addresses two research questions: 1) does Mexican migrants’ social ties influence their remittance behavior? and 2) does social ties counteract immigrant restriction effects on Mexican migrants’ remittance sending behavior? A Logistic regression model was used to estimate the likelihood that migrants send remittances during their last U.S. trip. An ordinary least squares regression was used to estimate the effect of social ties and immigrant enforcement periods on the logged amount of remittances sent monthly (2010 USD) by Mexican migrants during their last U.S. trip. Findings show that stricter immigration policies and social ties increased their likelihood in sending remittances and quantity sent. </em></p> Jose Luis Collazo Jr Copyright (c) 2022 Migration Letters 2022-11-12 2022-11-12 19 6 943 – 956 943 – 956 10.33182/ml.v19i6.1800 What to Consider While Researching Young Refugees and Migrants: Takeaways from a Field Research in Turkey https://www.migrationletters.com/ml/article/view/2818 <p><em>The youth perspective still has not been sufficiently included in the relevant research processes although research on young refugees becomes even more important to analyze this group's situation and needs, produce policies, and meet their needs. Conducting research on young refugees, as a subject at the intersection of youth research and migration research, requires a series of sensitivities regarding methods, approaches, and other components of the research processes. In this study, the research process, major takeaways, and prominent insights concerning doing research about young refugees will be shared based on the experience of a field study which was completed in 2019 in Turkey. In addition to the methodological and ethical discussions, the study also aims to share the elements that are recommended to consider while integrating young refugees into the processes and the inferences obtained from the experience within the scope of the field research.</em></p> Gokay Ozerim Copyright (c) 2022 Migration Letters 2022-11-12 2022-11-12 19 6 957 – 964 957 – 964 10.33182/ml.v19i6.2818 A Missing Piece: The Absence of Discussion About Integration Policy in the Slovak Migration Discourse https://www.migrationletters.com/ml/article/view/2780 <p><em>In the current paper, we will explain how and why Slovak politicians have been largely unwilling to articulate the topic of migrant integration in recent years, even though up until 2015, international migration was at least a marginal topic of public debate in Slovakia. To this day, this topic remains mostly unexplored by both Slovak politicians and voters. Since migration policy is a synthesis of immigration, asylum, and integration policies, we assume that the migration discourse will be equivalently structured. Although the integration of foreigners has traditionally been an important part of migration policy in the larger world, we have found that this topic has been marginalised in Slovak public discourse, i.e. it is usually not part of the political discussion here. Integration is a marginal topic of this political discourse because Slovak politicians prefer to articulate migration as a threat to public order, identity, culture, and religion. Slovak politicians reject migration because they assume that migrants are unable or unwilling to integrate.</em></p> Radoslav Stefancik Eva Stradiotova Terezia Seresova Copyright (c) 2022 Migration Letters 2022-11-12 2022-11-12 19 6 965 – 981 965 – 981 10.33182/ml.v19i6.2780 Front Matter https://www.migrationletters.com/ml/article/view/2853 Copyright (c) 2022 Migration Letters 2022-11-12 2022-11-12 19 6